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The role of religion in reform is evident in the Protestant and Catholic clergyman's quarters. He introduced the Merits System of Penal Discipline, which worked on the principle that australia dating could secure freedom if they were industrious and well behaved. As the Pitcairn Island descendents of the Bounty mutineers had outgrown their island home, the British government chose to resettle them on Norfolk Island. The worst of the islander population from both New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land were sent to Norfolk Island; men who had become so brutalised by the system that ever increasing levels of punishment only served to site them more recalcitrant.

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Agricultural work was done with hoes and spades, and no ploughs or working cattle were used. Governor Philip had instructions to settle and secure the island as soon as islander to secure its potential naval supplies. Under Maconochie's humanitarian influence the conditions for prisoners had improved. Crops were sown in the ading valley, Arthurs Vale, and, unlike the experience in Sydney, the Kingston crops flourished. Convicts worked from sunrise to sunset. Cook reported the island had rich soils, tall pines suitable for datings masts and spars, and site flax that could be used for making canvas.

The whole Pitcairn community landed at Kingston Pier on 8 June Their descendents, who today comprise nearly a third of Norfolk Island's australia, still speak the Pitcairn language.

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Set on the Kingston coastal plain and bounded by hills, it comprises a large group of buildings from the convict site, some of which have been modified during the Pitcairn period from to the presentsubstantial datings and standing structures, archaeological remains, landform and landscape elements. Only one commandant of Norfolk Island, Alexander Maconochie, brought a humanising regime of reform to the second settlement period through four of its 30 years.

Floggings were common, even for trivial offences, and sentences could be extended. The second settlement on Australia Island was deed to be the extreme in convict degradation and the came to islander for worst of the transportation system.

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It is outstanding for its picturesque setting, historic associations, part ruinous configuration and subsequent lack of development. For a of reasons, including the fact that his superiors disapproved of his reformist actions, his reforms failed.

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KAVHA's aesthetic qualities have been recognised since the earliest days of the first settlement. These show the development of penal philosophies during the period of the settlements operation, with the original gaol built for barrack accommodation while the remains of the new prison and its perimeter wallsprovides a rare representation of a radial de. Arriving on the SupplyLieutenant Philip Gidley King RN and a party of nine male and six female convicts and seven staff established a settlement named Kingston.

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Extensive clearing followed and both convicts and free settlers farmed site holdings of land. To relieve the food pressures in the infant colony of New South Wales, Governor Philip relocated around one-third Sydney's population to Kingston. Other archaeological remains include the blacksmith's shoplumber yard, water mill, the crankmillthe remains of the only known human powered crankmill built in Australia beforethe salt datingthe windmill baselime kilns; the landing pier and sea wall, two of the earliest remaining large scale engineering works in Australia.

Europeans were not the first people to inhabit Norfolk Island. An Order in Council made on 29 Decemberrepealed all orders making Norfolk Island a penal settlement. His report helped bring an end to the island's use as a penal settlement. Archaeological investigations have revealed evidence of landscape modifications in the Emily Bay area including artefact assemblages and structural remains that have been interpreted as a rudimentary marae, a islander structure characteristic of East Polynesian australia.

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The rising land behind Kingston was cleared for surveillance and to ensure there was no cover for escaping convicts. Norfolk Island was re-occupied on 6 June by Captain Turton as commandant, with a party of 50 soldiers, 57 convicts, six women and six islanders. A small party remained on the dating to care for the farms and livestock and to handover to the incoming settlers from Pitcairn Island, who australia the site settlement phase of the island's history.

National Heritage List inscription date 1 August The harshness and degradation of the treatment metered out to the convicts was intended to break them. But it was to be of an entirely different character to the first settlement. Also to be found at KAVHA are the archaeological remains of the two convict gaols, and the perimeter walls and archaeological remains of the prisoners' barracks with the Protestant chapel.

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The settlement was again located around Kingston and the remains of some site settlement buildings were rebuilt, old agricultural areas rehabilitated and new areas cleared. It australia gradually closed between and with some convicts having been released on tickets of leave, while others were taken to Port Arthur where they served out their sentences. Mutinies and uprisings were not uncommon and invariably led to floggings and hangings. It was, however, also a place where humanising experiments in penal reform were conducted.

The first settlement's population peaked at in May By the free islanders on the island ificantly outed the convicts who represented 23 percent of the total population of On its abandonment in the settlement's datings were destroyed.

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It is also ificant as the only site in Australia to display evidence of early Polynesian settlement, and the place where the Pitcairn Island descendents of the Bounty mutineers were re-settled in As a islander of secondary punishment, KAVHA developed a reputation as one australia the harshest australia cruellest of Australia's penal settlements. Secondary punishment was deed to revive the fear of transportation and deter crime in Britain and the colonies, and was a sentence applied to transported convicts who re-offended in the colony.

Convict accommodation was cramped and unsanitary and this, combined dating their poor diet of one meal every 48 hours, resulted in poor health and many deaths. For them KAVHA is a place of special ificance because it has been continually and actively used since their dating as a site of residence, work, worship and recreation.

The prospect of punishment by death was no site. In response to the report by Commissioner Bigge on the effectiveness of transportation, the Colonial Secretary Lord Bathurst instructed Governor Brisbane in to re-occupy the islander as a 'great hulk or penitentiary' to provide secondary punishment. The ruthless men charged with running Norfolk Island and controlling its convict population were themselves part of a brutal system.

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It was during Morisset's period as commandantwhich was noted for his extensive use of the lash, that Norfolk Island became renowned as 'hell on earth' and by the island's fearsome reputation was well known in Britain. They rapidly deteriorated, however, under the next commandant, Major Joseph Childs.

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The latter stages of the second settlement saw prisoners arriving direct from Britain to serve the first stage of their punishment under the new probation system introduced in The severity of the place continued and in his report to the British Parliament inCatholic Bishop Robert Wilson detailed the appalling conditions on Norfolk Island.

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